Tsunami exercise planned to check responses

| 12/03/2018 | 33 Comments

(CNS): Officials have said that local authorities will be joining in a Caribbean-wide tsunami response exercise on Thursday in order to evaluate plans and communications strategies, increase preparedness, and improve regional coordination. Hazard Management Cayman Islands (HMCI) Deputy Director of Preparedness, Danielle Coleman, said it would “test the current procedures of the Tsunami Warning System and help identify operational strengths and weaknesses”.

Entitled CARIBE WAVE 18, the test will simulate a widespread ‘tsunami warning and watch’ situation throughout the Caribbean, which requires implementation of local tsunami response plans. The exercise will include notification to the local media and representatives from various key government agencies.

It comes after the local authorities were criticised over what some believed was a patchy response to an actual tsunami warning in January following an earthquake in Honduras.

According to officials this exercise involves the simulation of a major earthquake and tsunami off the Caribbean coast of Columbia at 9am on March 15, 2018.

“One of the challenges of rapid onset threat events like a tsunami is getting the warning out to the public efficiently and effectively,” said Coleman. “A broad based Emergency Alert System is in development for the Cayman Islands, but it is not ready yet, and until the system is fully established, HMCI and other first response agencies continue to rely on more traditional communications vehicles to get the information out.”

The exercise will test established mechanisms and attempt to optimize existing communications capacities to get public safety messages out efficiently. It is sponsored by the UNESCO/IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS), the Caribbean Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA), the Centro de Coordinación para la Prevención de los Desastres Naturales en América Central (CEPREDENAC), and the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

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Category: Caribbean, Local News, World News

Comments (33)

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  1. Anonymous says:

    I did not get any type of notification on either of my phones.

    When I arrived home minutes to six in the evening, I noticed my radio, microwave and ac clocks all had the wrong time.

    Decided to check CUC website for any reports of power outages and there was no update for today.

    I don’t owe any money as I have solar, so leaves me to question just how reliable solar really is.


  2. Anonymous says:

    Friends in Bahamas received their test message…nothing on my phones in the Cayman Islands #fail


    • simon says:

      We did not send public messages. This was an internal communications exercise, however we successfully used the new radio interrupt system on Radio Cayman and plan to roll that technologt out across all radio stations in coming weeks.
      In this exercise we chose to look at internal processes and asked other key Governement agencies to test their response procedures.

      Messages went out to the media and all groups associated with National Emergency Operations Centre but it was not a test of a mass messaging to the public.


  3. Anonymous says:

    On a beautiful sunny blue sky day in 2001, a powerful series of rogue waves generated from Hurricane Michelle passing hundreds of miles to our west: destroyed the former Turtle Farm, stripped a layer of asphalt clean off the road surface in George Town, carried water and sand into the lobbies of beachfront hotels and did $28 mln dollars worth of damage to other sea property. Was all over in minutes. Mother nature is large, and in charge.


    • Shhhhhhhhhh. says:

      Yes and I remember it well, BUT, that was storm surge, NOT tsunami generated. I would like a qualified geologist to explain to me how a tsunami is going to ever adversely affect the Cayman Islands. Tsunamis require not only a suitable tectonic event, BUT, an offshore ramp or shelf that magnifies the waves generated, and moves the water to dangerous heights and speed. To my knowledge, those off shore conditions do not exist around the Cayman Islands, so any tsunami wave generated offshore will simply roll on by harmlessly. To put it simply, Cayman is like a skinny cone rising from very deep ocean depths, and lacks the structure needed to actually make a tsunami dangerous here. So I ask, why all the drama?


      • Anonymous says:

        Having been down over 1000′ on the Atlantis mini-sub pre-Ivan, I can tell you with certainty that Grand Cayman is the flat top of a mountain peak with 1000’s of vertical feet of exposure to movements in the water column. Tsunamis result from a shift of the entire water column, not a wind-blown surface current. The displaced water decelerates on hitting a land mass obstruction. So we would qualify on a localized scale.

        University of Alberta Geologist, Dr. Brian Jones, has written a book that is available from the CI National Trust store, or you can watch one of his many visiting lectures here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96cRzMdLdI4

        Around the 59min mark Dr. Jones addresses an audience question of 10 tonne dolostone boulders near Pedro which were dated as having been in the ocean at least as recently as 660AD. They have been lifted up to 6-8m vertically, and transferred up to 100m laterally across the Pedro Bluff over time. They were deposited either by a series of Super-Hurricanes over time, and/or a Tsunami at some point in the past.

        We have little if any local detection equipment. The NOAA sea-state bouys were not placed for us, or for that purpose and would only be useful in hindsight reconstruction of our disaster. Even if we did have local tools, the suction and ramp up would happen in minutes with not much warning.


  4. Anonymous says:

    We’ll only need last rights over the radio if Cumbre Vieja volcano slides. Bottoms up everyone!


  5. Anonymous says:

    “CARIBE WAVE 18” sounds like a slogan for this year’s Carnival. This ain’t Keystone Cop aerobics either so hopefully after this excercise you’ll have a bullet proof plan to warn us ALL and provide us the best possible advice for survival. My best guess of what this actually is however is just an exercise in futility.


  6. Anonymous says:

    Step 1: identify competence. Good luck with Step 2


  7. Anonymous says:


    1498, August 2 or 3: An earthquake and Possible tsunami affecting Pedemales in Boca de la Sierpe, Venezuela was reported. Singer,etal.,1983.V2

    1530, September 1: Ground cracking occurred on a mountain near the Gulf of Cariaco, Venezuela. Black salt water and asphalt flowed from ground openings. A fort and many houses were destroyed perhaps by the combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami. The sea rose 7.3 m, and subsided near the coast of Paris. It rose 6.0 m near the island of Cubagua, and at Camana. Beminghausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Mallet, 1853; Mime, 1912; Robson, 1964; Schubert, 1994; Singer, et al., 1983. V4

    1539, November 24 [23:00 Local Time (LT)]: Sailors in three ships 160 km off Cabo de Higueras in Northern Honduras reported a shaking of the sea and headed for shore. Reportedly the sailors described the shock as crashing against the rocks. An earth movement began at the river mouth, and advanced slowly wiping out massive amounts of land 84 m north to south, and ruining a large house. The shaking reportedly lasted many hours. Earthquake effects were reported in the region of the Gulf of Honduras. Molina reports a seaquake. Feldman, 1993; Molina, 1997. V2

    1541, December 25: A tsunami was reported at Cubagua Island, along with possible tsunami damage at Nueva Cadiz, Venezuela. Singer says an earthquake is doubtful. Schubert, 1994; Singer, et al., 1983. V2

    1543: Reports included accounts of waves and a sea that was much higher than the land. This was probably due to subsidence. The city of Cumana, Venezuela, was destroyed, possibly by an earthquake. Beminghausen, 1968; Ceteno-Grau, 1969; Grases, 1971; Heck,
    1947; Robson, 1964; Singer, et al., 1983. v2

    1688, March 1: [Gregorian date] Earthquakes were felt throughout Jamaica, and waves damaged ships in Port Royal. A ship at sea was reportedly damaged by a hurricane. No hurricanes are listed in Millas, since this is not in hurricane season. Beminghausen, 1968; Mallet, 1853; Millas, 1968; Milne, 1912; Perrey, 1847. Vl

    1690, April 16: Au earthquake with magnitudes reported variously up to Ms>8 occurred in the Leeward Islands, and generated waves after substantial recession of the sea at many locations. This is the earliest record of a tsunami affecting any U.S. territories. Olsen, citing letters from the Danish West Indian and Guinea Company, reported for Sunday, April 6 (the Julian date) at Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas: Eyewitnesses reported an earthquake around four pm which lasted one fourth to one-half an hour and caused the sea to recede so that it was possible to walk out 18 meters and pick up the fish. The earthquake was also listed as MMI=IK at Antigua, where there were several deaths. At St. Kitts (St. Christopher) large earth cracks opened. The earthquake caused the collapse of the Jesuit College and all other stone buildings at Nevis, where landslides generated on volcanic Nevis Peak caused the sea to withdraw 201 m from Charleston, before returning in two minutes. Guadeloupe also incurred much damage. Lander and Lo&ridge, 1989; Mallet, 1853; Olsen, 1988; Robson, 1964, citing Calendar of State Papers 1689-1692 (1901); Oldmixon (1741); Schubert, 1994; Shepherd and Lynch, 1992; and Taylor, 1888. V4

    1692, June 7 [11:43 LT]: An earthquake at Port Royal, Jamaica, caused a landslide within the harbor, generated a tsunami, and destroyed ninety percent of the buildings in the city. Portions of the city slipped into the water. A 1.8 m wave crossed the bay. Ships overturned. Along the coast of Liganee (possibly Liguanea Plain, site of present-day Kingston) the sea withdrew 274 m exposing the bottom. The returning water overflowed most of the shore. The sea withdrew 1.6 km at Yallhouse (possibly Yallahs). A large wave was reported at Saint Ann’s Bay. Approximately 2,000 were killed in the earthquake and tsunami. Beminghausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Mallet, 1853; Milne, 1912; Myles, 1985; Perrey, 1847, Rubio, 1982; Sloane, 1809; Taber, 1920. V4

    1726: A large wave partially destroyed a Spanish fort on the Araya Peninsula. At Salina de Araya, the waves destroyed a salt plant by an inundation of the sea. This event is reportedly one of two large waves reported for Venezuela (the other occurred in 1900) but is not associated with an earthquake. Schubert, 1994; Singer, et al., 1983. V2

    1750: A tsunami reportedly associated with an earthquake in Venezuela was reported. Schubert, 1994; Singer, et al., 1983. Vl

    1751, September 15: A large earthquake reportedly destroyed Port-au-Prince and caused subsidence off the coast. There is uncertainty as to whether this event is really a separate event or another account of the November 21” event in that year. Seismic activity continued for months and reportedly involved most of the island of Hispaniola. The earthquakes were felt as far away as the Lesser Antilles. The mainshock was estimated as Ms=8.0, with numerous aftershocks. No tsunami was reported. Lyell, 1875; Perry, 1843, Milne, 1912; Shepherd and Lynch, 1992. Vl

    1751, October 18 [19:00 UT]: The city of Azua de Compostela, Hispaniola, was destroyed by an earthquake and the resulting tsunami. Damaging waves were also reported at Santa Domingo and Santa Cruz El Seybo. Beming-hausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Mallet, 1853; Perrey, 1847; Rubio, 1982; Taber, 1922a 1922b. V4

    1751, November 21: A violent shock at Port-au-Prince, Haiti, caused a twenty-league (96 km) section of the coast to fall into the sea. No tsunami was reported. Mallet (1853). Vl

    1755, November 01 [9:50 LT]: A teletsunami was generated by a strong earthquake in Lisbon, Portugal. This North Atlantic teletsunami reached Antigua in about 9.3 hours. Later waves with estimated mnup heights of 7 m were observed at Saba, Netherlands Antilles. At St. Martin, the rump was 4.5 m. The full height of the tsunami could have been as high as ten meters. Antigua and Dominica each had rumps of 3.6 m. At Barbados, the waves were 1.5 – 1.8 m and were reported to have a very short period of only 5 minutes. The water looked as black as ink (perhaps from a local landslide). Waves were also reported at Samana Bay, Dominica. At Martinique, the water was reported to have withdrawn 1.6 km and returned to inundate the upper floors of houses. Lowlands on most of the other French islands were inundated. At Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, waves damaged buildings near the bay and inundated the town. Affleck, 1809; Heck, 1947; Herridge de Guerrero, 1998; Lander and Lockridge, 1989; Mallet, 1853; Robson, 1964; Rubio, 1982; Scherer, 1912; Schubert, 1994; Southey, 1827; Taber, 1922a, 1922b. V4

    1755, November 18: The earthquake shock was felt from Chesapeake Bay to the Annapolis river, Nova Scotia. It was felt on Lake George, and a ship at sea 200 miles east of Cape Ann experienced a sea quake. The tsunami which accompanied this earthquake withdrew the water from St. Martins Harbor in the West Indies, leaving vessels aground (this may be the only tsunami generated by an earthquake on the western shores of the Atlantic off the United States East Coast.) (Dombroski, 1973)

    1761, March 31[12:05 LT]: An earthquake near Lisbon, Portugal, reportedly caused a 1.2 m tsunami at Barbados. Beminghausen, 1968; Davidson, 1936; Mallet, 1854; Schubert, 1994. V4

    1766, June 12 [4:45 UT]: An earthquake lasting one and a half to seven minutes hit Santiago de Cuba, and Bayamo, Cuba, and was felt strongly on Jamaica. Ships reported to be 7.2 km from the coast of Jamaica rolled so much that their gunwales were immersed in the water. A tsunami would not greatly affect ships in deep water. Either the ships were in shallow water or the effect was due to a seaquake. Grases, 1971; Mallet, 1854. V2

    1766, October 21 [9:00 UT]: Very violent ihocks destroyed Cumana, Venezuela, and caused the island of Orinoco (Venezuela) to sink and disappear. In many places the water surface was disturbed. Mallet,1854. Vl

    1767, April 24 [6:00 UT]: Robson reported shocks at Martinique, Barbados and British Guiana. According to reports an agitated sea ebbed and flowed in an unusual way at Martinique and Barbados. Beminghausen, 1968; Mallet, 1854; Robson, 1964, V3

    1769: A tsunami reportedly inundated 15 leagues (72 km) along the coast at Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Schubert 1994. V2

    1770, June 03 [19:15 LT]: A strong earthquake caused 200 fatalities in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Waves were noted at Golfe de la Gonave and Arcahaie in Haiti. The sea inundated 7.2 km inland. Beminghausen cites Mallet and gives a similar report dated 1769 (two reports of the same event). Beminghausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Mallet, 1854; Milne, 1912; Rubio, 1982; Schubert, 1994; Southey,1827; Taber, 1922a, 1922b. V4

    1775, February 11: An earthquake at Hispaniola reportedly 1eveIed several storehouses, and great damage was done by a tsunami, but the exact date and location are unknown. Event may be identical with March 1775 and December 18, 1775. Shepherd and Lynch, 1992; Southey, 1827. V2.

    1775, March: Three strong shocks were felt on Hispaniola. Several storehouses were destroyed, and great damage was done by the sea. May be identical with February 11, 1775, and December 18, 1775. Grases, 1971; Rubio, 1982. V2.

    1775, December 18: Three earthquakes were reported, and waves reportedly did extensive damage at Hispaniola and Cuba. However, Rubio does not mention any effects in Cuba. Event may be identical with February 11, 1775, and March, 1775. Beminghausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Rubio, 1982; Southey, 1827; Taber, 1922a, 1922b. V2

    1780, October 03 [22:00 LT]: An earthquake was reported to have occurred during a hurricane at Savanna La Mar, Jamaica. The sea rose to 3 m at 0.8 km from the beach and swept away a number of houses. Ten people were killed by the wave, and approximately 300 deaths resulted from the storm. All vessels in the bay were dashed to pieces or driven ashore. It is believed to be a spurious tsunami report, with the effects due to the hurricane storm surge. Heck, Milne, and Beminghausen all quote a date of Oct. 2, as reported by Perry. Millas reports Oct. 3 as the date of the storm. Beminghausen also gives Oct. 22 for this event, incorrectly citing Mallet, who gives the date as Oct. 2. Beminghausen, 1968; Heck,1947; Mallet, 1854; Milne, 1912, Millas, 1968; Perrey, 1847; Shepherd and Lynch, 1992. Vl

    1781, August 01: Grases, citing Henderson’s Jamaica Almanac for 1852, reported that a series of waves and disastrous earthquakes that nearly mined the island of Jamaica. No other reports of earthquakes could be found for this day, but a major hurricane is reported. Not reported in Hall. Hall, 1907; Grases, 1971; Henderson, 1852; Millas, 1968. V2

    1787, October 27 [14:20 LT]: A small local shock was felt at Montego Bay, Jamaica, and the vessels in the harbor were agitated. Mallet reports earthquakes in Jamaica at Kingston and Port Royal on Oct. 1 and 21. This is a low validity report since no wave was reported, and the agitation may have been due to a seaquake. The event was not reported in Hall, 1907. Beminghausen, 1968; Mallet, 1854; Rubio, 1982; Hall, 1907. Vl

    1798, February 22: A local tsunami was reported at Matina, Costa Rica. Eyewitnesses noted unusual sea noises between seven and eight p.m. Molina, 1997. V2

    1802, March 19: Earthquakes were reported in February and March at Antigua, St. Christopher, and other West Indies Islands, with the largest (Intensity IV) on this date. It was accompanied by great agitation of the sea. There were no tsunami reports so this was probably due to a sea quake. Beminghausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Mallet, 1855; Robson, 1964. V2

    1802, May 5: Earthquakes at Cumana, Venezuela, reportedly caused the water of the Orinoco River to rise, and left part of the river bed dry. This could describe wave action near the mouth of the river, or bore action up the river. The rudder of a vessel was broken. Mallet, 1855. V3

    1812, March 26: A rise of sea level associated with an earthquake reportedly occurred on the Venezuelan coast. Gigantic waves reportedly broke stretches of the sea wall that protected the coast near La Guaira. Singer, et al., 1983. V2

    1812, November 11 [10:50 UT]: The sea was much agitated following an earthquake. At Annotto Bay, Jamaica, anchorage ground sank causing a ship to lose its anchor and 90 fathoms (-180 m) of cable. This may be the description of the effects of a submarine landslide or of subsidence, or could be the description of a tsunami or the action of a seaquake. Hall, 1907; Mallet, 18.55. V2

    1822, May 7: At Matins, Costa Rica, earthquake shaking lasted almost 24 hours and caused ground cracking. A local tsunami was reported. The rivers and bays experienced flooding (possible description of a tsunami). Molina, 1997. V2

    1823, November 30 [3:10 LT]: At 245 LT a strong earthquake was followed by a tsunami at 3:10 LT that caused damage in Saint-Pierre Harbor. Beminghausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Mallet, 1955; Perrey, 1847; Robson, 1964. V4

    1824, September 13: Earthquakes were felt at Basse Terre, Guadeloupe, on September 9”. On the 13” there was a remarkable rise and fall of the tide at Plymouth, Montserrat. There had been a terrible storm and heavy rain from September 7” to the 9”. Mallet, 1855. V2.

    1824, November 30: A severe shock was reported at St. Pierre, Martinique. Ships were thrown on shore. Heavy rain lasting 10 days followed. Mallet, 1855. V2

    1825, February: A shock was reported by passengers on a boat near Honduras. A rumbling noise was heard. This is a description of a seaquake. Arce, 1998. Vl

    1825, September 20 [1:45 UT]: A local earthquake and oscillations of the sea were noted in Demerara County, British Guiana. An earthquake (MMI=VIB) was also noted at Trinidad, Tobago, St. Vincent, and Barbados. Beminghausen, 1968; Mallet, 1855; Milne, 1912; Perrey, 1847, V2

    1831, December 3: At Trinidad and St. Christopher, a violent disturbance at sea was reported, and the shocks were felt on board ship as well as on land. This was a seaquake. An earthquake was also reported at Grenada, Tobago, St. Vincent, and British Guiana. Beminghausen, 1968; Mallet, 1855; Perrey, 1847, Robson, 1964. Vl

    1837, July 26: Several shocks accompanied by a large wave occurred during a Martinique hurricane. The wave source is uncertain, Beminghausen, 1968; Grases, 1971; Mallet, 1855; Perrey, 1847. V2

    1842, May 7 [17:30 LT]: A strong earthquake caused extreme damage, generated a tsunami, and killed 4,000-5,000 people. At Haiti, the destructive tsunami struck the northern coast. At Mole Saint-Nicolas, and Cap-Haitien, extensive destruction was caused by the earthquake and tsunami. At Port-de-Paix, the sea receded 60 m, and the returning wave covered the city with 5 m of water killing 200-300 of the city’s 3,000. At Santo Domingo, 2 m waves were observed. The tsunami was observed at Forte-Liberte and Santiago de 10sCaballeros. At St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, the height was 3.1 m. Waves of 2 m caused destruction on the north coast of Hispaniola. Note the large area of this event, but that no tsunami report is available from locations such as Puerto Rico, although there are reports from Haiti and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Berninghausen, 1968; Grases, 1971; Heck, 1947; Mallet, 1855; Milne, 1912; Rubio, 1982; Scherer, 1912; Taber, 1922a, 1922b. V4

    1843, February 8 [14:50 UT]: A disastrous earthquake (Mw=8.3) occurred at Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe. It was felt at Antigua, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Montserrat, Martinique, and other islands. At Antigua, the sea rose 1.2 m and sank again immediately. Robson, 1964. V4

    1843, February 17: A volcanic eruption near Marie Galante Antigua, of February 17, ejected jets and columns of water, and may have resulted in a minor tsunami. Robson, 1964. Vl

    1852, July 17 [7:25]: At Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, a strong surge in the bay affected the port buildings and loading docks. It may have been the product of an earthquake that also affected the U.S. frigate, Tropic, which was about 113 km from Jamaica. Rubio, 1982. V2

    1853, July 15: A violent earthquake (MMI=X) in Cumana, Venezuela, was followed by a probable tsunami several meters high. Houses were destroyed at Sabana de Salgado, Puerto Sucre. Sabana de Caiguire was also affected. Beminghausen, 1968; Ceneno-Grau, 1969; Milne, 1912; Perrey, 1847; Robson, 1964; Singer, et al., 1983. V3

    1855, September 25 [10:45 LT]: Feldman reports that the first shock (lasting 15 seconds) of an earthquake sequence in Honduras caused the Simporonius, a ship anchored in the bay, to drop suddenly. (a seaquake) The phenomenon, which created a wake, was repeated several times. A total of nine shocks were counted on the 25*. During the next 17 days, recurring shocks were experienced. The city of Trujillo was heavily damaged. Reports indicate heavy rain for three days. This event was probably associated with a hurricane. Feldman, 1993; Molina, 1997. Vl

    1856, August 9: Earthquakes (from August 4 to 14) damaged villages, on the Honduras coast from the banks of the Rio Tinto to Rio Ulna and Omoa, Livingston, Santo Tomas, Belize, Jamaica, and Guatemala City. Tsunami effects included the following: At Omoa, the sea fell and rose 5 m reaching the base of the fortress and adding to the earthquake damage. During violent trembling at the mouth of Rio Patuca, the water receded from the 8 km broad Criba lagoon toward the sea, leaving the bottom dry. The waters returned from every direction, rose in a column then fell and advanced toward the land. The tsunami carried whole trees, branches, and stones. Natives reported that water swept into the interior about 24 km. The tsunami affected several towns, including Cortez, Atlantida, and Trujillo. There were reports of rivers changing directions, probably due to bores. Feldman,
    1993, (citing Anthony, 1856:167-171); Molina, 1997. V4.

    1860, March 8: An earthquake was reported from Port-au-Prince and Anse-a-Veau, Haiti. Waves were reported from Golfe de la Gonave, Cayes, and Acquin. At Anse a Veau the sea withdrew and broke with a crash on the shore upon returning. Berninghausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Milne, 1912; Taber, 1922a,1922b. V4.

    1867, (September or October): Singer reports a tsunami at Margarita Islands, Venezuela, but is doubtful about a link to an earthquake. Given the uncertainty of the date and the likelihood of effects on Venezuela from the Nov. 18” event, this is probably a description of the Nov. 18& event in Venezuela. Singer, et al., 1983. Vl [See Nov. 18, 1867]

    1867, November 18 [18:45 UT]: An earthquake occurred in the Angegada trough between St. Croix and St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands generated a tsunami with waves reaching the shore about 15 minutes later. The waves were observed from Puerto Rico to Grenada, possibly reaching the northern coast of South America. It is reported to have been the most destructive tsunami in the U.S. Virgin Islands. At Deshaies, Guadeloupe, shortly after the earthquake, the sea receded 100 m and returned as an 18.3 m wave about 5 km broad (the largest tsunami ever recorded in the Caribbean), damaging dwellings and carrying all floatable objects away. At Sainte-Rose, the wave height was 10 m. At Basse-Tetre, the height was 1.0 m, and the sea retreated far from the coast. At Isles des Saintes, there was a slight swell, and at Fond-du-Cure, houses were inundated to a depth of 1 m. At Pointe-a-Pitre, there was a slight swell. At Charlotte Amale, St. Thomas, the water receded nearly 10 m and returned as waves 4.5 to 6 m high, killing 12 people, swamping small boats in the harbor and damaging the KS.5De Soto. The U.S. cruiser, USS De Soto, was able to rescue at least three people from the water in the harbor. A lithograph depicting the La Plats Mail Steamer floundering in the wayes appeared in a Harper’s Weekly. A coal barge was also depicted. The barge was destroyed along with most of the crew of the La Hata. The pier was covered with 2.4 m waves, and the lower part of the city was flooded.
    At Altona, houses were washed far inland, and there was damage at Hassel Island. At St. Croix, the waves were 7 to 9 m. At Christensted, waves swept inland 91 m, and at Gallows Bay, 20 houses were damaged.
    At Frederiksted, the sea withdrew and returned as a wall of water 7.6 m high, leaving the USS Monomgahela stranded. Five were killed, 3-4 injured, and 20 houses were damaged.
    At Puerto Rico the waves were 1 to 6 m, depending on the orientation of the particular coast. At San Juan and Arroyo, water rose 0.9 to 1.5 m, and high waves were observed at the Vieques Islands. At Fajardo, a very small wave was reported, and at Yabucoa the sea retreated and inundated 137 m on its return. At Peter Island, British Virgin Islands, waves 1.2 to 1.5 m were reported, and people fled to Tortola.
    At Roadtown, Tortola, 1.5 m waves swept some houses away. At Saba, Netherlands Antilles, damage was reported. At St. Christopher, waves were also observed. At St. Martin and St. Barthelemy, damage was also reported. At St. Johns, Antigua, the waves had a height of 2.4 to 3.0 m. The wave was observed at Martinique, and St. Vincent had unusually high water. The height was 3 m at Grenada, and Gouyave (Charlotte Town) and 1.5 m at St. Georges. Waves were 1.8 m at Bequia, in the Grenadines. A tsunami is also mentioned at Margarita Islands, Venezuela, dated September or October 1867, possibly associated with an earthquake (see above), which may actually refer to this event. Deville, 1867; Lander and Lo&ridge, 1989; Milne, 1912; Paiewonsky, 1979; Reid and Taber, 1920, Robson, 1964, Schubert, 1994, Singer et al., 1983; Van Housel, 1878; Watlington and Lincoln, 1997. V4

    1868: A tsunami was reported at Cabo Blanc0 Maiqueta, Venezuela, with a doubtful link to an earthquake. No specific date or details are listed. Singer, et al., 1983. Vl

    1868, August 13: A tsunami reportedly occurred at Juangriego, Margarita Island, and also at Rio Caribe, Venezuela, associated with an earthquake. Shaking effects linked to an earthquake are mentioned at Rio Apure, Rio Arauca, Rio Yaruari, and Rio Orinoco (Ciudad Bolivar in Venezuela). Singer, et al., 1983; Schubert, 1994. V2

    1873, October 13 [l&O5 LT]: At 18:05 LT, an earthquake of intensity V was felt at Panama City, on ships in the harbor, and at Aspinwall, Panama, where the shock was more severe and the people were frightened. Fear of a tsunami added to the concern. Since tsunamis are rare in this area, this may mean that some wave activity was noticed. The report of the earthquake being felt on ships in the harbor could mean that this was a seaquake. Molina, 1997. Vl

    1874, March 11 [4:30 LT]: A submarine shock southeast of St. Thomas, shook the island and ships in the harbor. Simultaneously, the water in the bay appeared turbid as though clouded by sand and mud. A little later strong ripples from the south lasting some time agitated the water surface. These ripples may have been a tsunami, with the earlier effects being from the seismic waves agitating the bottom. At Dominica, the steamer, Corsica, reported a series of heavy rollers in the harbor at 5:00 LT, that lasted half an hour, and rendered communication with the shore impossible. Those on the steamer did not feel the earthquake. Reduced effects at Charlotte Amalie may indicate a source on the eastern side of the island. Berninghausen, 1964; Palgrave, 1874. V2

    1881, August 12: An earthquake was felt on Jamaica, and a wave was reported from the north coast. Six hours after the earthquake, the water rose approximately 46 cm at Kingston Harbor. (This is probably too long after the earthquake for a local tsunami. The event may have been related to a delayed submarine landslide.) There was a hurricane near Cuba on this date. This wave may not have been caused by the earthquake. Berninghausen, 1964; Hall, 1907; Taber, 1920. Vl

    1882, September 07 [7:50 UT]: A MS = 7.9 earthquake reportedly occurred at 7:50 UT and was observed in Colombia, Panama, Nicaragua, and Ecuador. The cable to the West Indies was broken, which suggests a submarine landslide. A 3 m tsunami affected the San Bias coast of Northern Panama, and washed out most of the islands of the San Blas Archipelago, which were submerged for several minutes. Between 75 and 100 were drowned. Unfortunately the marigram from the French Canal Company at Colon, which had recorded the tsunami, is lost. Camacho, 1994b; Milne, 1912; Molina, 1997. V4

    1883, August 27 [lO:OO LT]: A tsunami was reported on August 27, at St. Thomas. The water receded from the shore three times. Sharp shocks of earthquakes were felt at 1O:OOLT, on the following evening, and on August 30. These effects may have been related to the Krakatoa, Indonesia, volcanic eruption on August 26, 1883, that caused 30,000 regional fatalities and produced air waves that caused small water waves widely recorded in the harbors of Hawaii, California, Alaska, South Sandwich Islands, Great Britain, Japan, and Australia. Hurricanes passed north of St. Thomas, on Aug. 18-19 and 24-27. Monthly Weather Review, 1883. V3

    1887, September 23 [12:00 UT]: An earthquake, felt at Port-de-Paix, Haiti, Inagua Island, Bahama Islands, and Jamaica, apparently occurred near the Bartlett trough, a short distance southwest of Mole- Saint-Nicolas. At Jeremie, Haiti, the sea withdrew 20 m and returned with a rush. Waves were observed at Mole-Saint-Nicolas, Anse d’Hainault, Point Tiburon, Haiti, and other ports. Berningbausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Milne, 1912, Scherer, 1912; Taber, 1922a, 1922b. V4

    1900, October 29: A possible tsunami was reported at Macuto, Venezuela, associated with an earthquake, and at Puerto Tuy, a wave of 10 m, was also associated with an earthquake. The destructive earthquake reportedly destroyed several towns and caused 25 fatalities. An islet in the mouth of the Neveri River disappeared, but a tsunami is not mentioned at this location. This is reportedly one of two large “sea waves” reported for Venezuela (1726 and 1900). Grases, 1971; Schubert, 1994; Singer, et al.,
    1983. V3

    1902, May 8: There was a devastating eruption of Mont Pelee, Martinique, which sent a nuee ardente into St. Pierre, killing about 3,000 inhabitants. It caused fires on the ships in the harbor, and hit and overturned some of them. Ship captains remarked about a material change in the course of currents sweeping along the west and north coasts of Martinique. The New York Times gives the following report: “The fall of lava into the sea had pushed all the water out to the open ocean, as if trying to topple the harbor into the Atlantic a league away. There was never a storm that raised waves like those we saw in the waters of St. Pierre…They lay groaning about the decks, as may of them as had not been washed overboard.” In a second article the New York Times states: “Fort de France yesterday was covered with ashes, stones were falling, and a tidal wave added to the terror of the population, which was flying to the hills.” Heilprin, 1903. .” New York Times, Wednesday,
    May 21, 1902; Thursday May 22, 1902. V2

    1902, May 20: Continuing eruptions of Mont Pelee, Martinique caused disturbances of coastal waters. “At five o’clock in the morning of May 20 a tidal wave parted Hdga’s hawsers, (anchored at Fort de France) and the steamer went adrift, but we brought to anchor quickly. The heavy fall of volcanic matter compelled the crew to seek shelter, and the tidal waves recurred rapidly, causing great danger.. .At noon the sea began to recede (at Fort de France) with a heavy ground swell tossing the shipping so severely that vessels broke from their moorings. Then a long, rolling wave spread over the sea front, but it did little damage, and the sea again receded and left a considerable area of the shore permanently uncovered.. ..The sea itself seems troubled. It has invaded Le Precheur, undermining several houses, and adding the ravages of inundation to those of fire.” A severe inundation at Basse Pointe, on the northeast coast of this island, at 2 o’clock a.m., swept away twenty houses. ..A tidal wave has destroyed a portion of the village of Le Carbet. New York Times, Wednesday, May 21, 1902, Thursday, May 22, 1902, Friday, May 23, 1902.

    1902, May. The New York Times, Saturday May 17, 1902. AT the same time as the eruption of Mont Pelee, Soufriere of St. Vincent erupted. This eruption also caused fluctuations of the sea level. “It is estimated that the sea has encroached from ten feet to two miles along the coast near Georgetown, and that a section of the north of the island has dropped into the sea. This is apparently verified by the report of the French cable ship Payer-Quertier that soundings now show seven fathoms where before the outbreak, there were thirty-six fathoms of water.” The New York Times May 17, 1902.

    1902, August 30 [21:25 LT]: At 1 p.m. LT a great volcanic cloud flowed from NW to SW from the crater of Mont Pelee, Martinique to about half the distance to Fort-de-France. A violent eruption at 9 p.m. in the evening, comparable to the May, 1902 eruption, advanced almost to Fort-de-France with a light fall of ashes and small stones. The sea retreated at 9:25 p.m., followed by a rapid rise of about 1 m, which covered the quays and came to the border of the grassland area. Heilprin, 1903. V4

    1902, September 3: This quote was found in the New York Times: “To add to the miseries of Martinique, a tidal wave has swept the shore towns, rising sixty feet at fort de France. The inhabitants to escape this new danger are fleeing in great numbers to the mountains.” New York Times, Wednesday September 3, 1902.

    1906: A tsunami was reported at Cabo Blanca, Maiquetia Island, Venezuela, with an uncertain link to an earthquake. An earthquake (MMI=VIQ reportedly occurred on February 16, 1906, at 1:25 LT at St. Lucia. Other islands affected were Martinique, St. Vincent, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Barbados, and Grenada. Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; Robson, 1964; Schubert, 1994; Singer, et al., 1983. V2

    1906, January 31: A tsunami was reported at Cumana, at Carupano, at Costas Nueva Esparta, at Rio Caribe, and at Isla de Margarita, Venezuela. Also reported were shaking effects of the waters, inland at Rio Apure, Rio Arauca, Rio Catatumbo, Rio Escalante, Rio Zulia, and Cane Colorado, Maturin. Schubert, 1994, Singer, et al., 1983. V3

    1907, January 14: An earthquake (MMI=lX) ruined most of Kingston, Jamaica, and damaged much of the surrounding area, including a suspension bridge at Port Maria. Buff Bay was destroyed. About 1,000 people perished. A large tsunami pounded the northern coast with waves of 2.5 m, at Hope Bay, Orange Bay, Sheerness Bay, and St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica, where the sea receded and dropped 3.7-6.2 m. At Annotto Bay, the sea receded 73-93 m, dropping 3-3.7 m below mean sea level three minutes after the shock. The returning wave raised the water level 1.8-2.4 m above normal, sweeping into the lower parts of town and destroying dwellings. On higher land it came up 7.6-9.1 m. At Port Maria, the sea receded 25.6 m 3-4 minutes after the shock and returned 1.8-2.4 m above sea level. At Ocho Rios the sea withdrew 69 m and also receded at Bluff Bay. At Port Antonio, the wave moved a small building near the beach. Waves of lesser significance were repotted along the southern coast of Jamaica. Seiches of 2.5 m were set up in Kingston Harbor. The short time period after the earthquake and recession of the water suggest a local submarine landslide source. Beminghausen, 1968, Hall, 1907; Heck, 1947; Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; Mutty, 1977; Rubio, 1982, Taber, 1920. V4

    1911, November 3: A volcano-related tsunami produced extraordinary waves at Trinidad, following an explosion of a mud volcano island. Amald and Macready, 1956; Beminghausen, 1968. V3

    1916, April 24 [8:02 UT]: An earthquake (Ms=7.5) caused considerable damage at Bocas del Tore and Almirante, Panama, disrupting electric and water service and cutting the submarine cable linking the two areas. Debris and canoes were carried 198 m inland by knee-deep waves. Storage tanks were destroyed. The pier was damaged, houses were shifted from their supports, small buildings tumbled down, and fresh water flowed from cracks in the ground. Waves flooded Bastimento, Panama, and parts of the city were completely covered by the sea.
    Witnesses on board a ship reported the event at Bocas del Tore. The earthquake was felt as if they were on land. The boat was lifted by the waves and was swept by strange sea currents. A second earthquake (MMI=lX) was listed as having occurred at 4:26 UT on eastern Hispaniola. Beminghausen, 1968; Feldman, 1984; Heck, 1947; Kirkpatrick, 1920; Molina, 1997; Reed, 1917. V4

    1916, August: Powerful waves caused “the loss of USS Memphis, an 18,000 tonne [sic] cruiser, which in August 1916 was anchored in Santa Domingo harbour. At 1530 the vessel, which drew 8.2 m was anchored 3 ‘/z cables SW of Punta Torrecilla in a light NE breeze. By 1700 she was a total wreck having been carried a distance of over 5 cables by waves estimated to have exceeded 15 m in height.” West Indies Pilot, Volume 1 Art 1.149.
    1916, November 12: A tsunami reportedly connected with an earthquake occurred at Ocumare de la Costa, Venezuela. Schubert, 1994; Singer, et al., 1983. V2

    1918, October 11 [lo:14 LT]: A tectonic event that generated an earthquake (M=7.5) in the Mona Passage, west of Puerto Rico, may have beendue to subduction near the Brownson deep. A tsunami with runup heights reaching 6 m followed the earthquake (MMI=M) causing extensive damage along the western and northern coasts of Puerto Rico, especially to those villages established in a flood plain. At Punta Agujereada, the 5.5-6.1 m amplitude tsunami drowned 8 people, uprooted several hundred palm trees, and destroyed several houses. Waves having a travel time of 6 minutes from the tsunami origin to Aguadilla, rose 2.4-3.4 m above mean sea level, drowning 32 people and destroying 300 dwellings. At Rio Culebrinas, 1000 kg blocks of limestone from the wrecked Columbus monument were carried inland to distances of 46-76 m by waves 4.0 m high. At Punta Higuero Lighthouse, waves uprooted coconut palms and stranded fish on the railroad tracks located 5.2 m above sea level, while 800 m SE of the lighthouse the water rose 2.6-2.7 m. Water levels rose 1.5 m, 23 minutes after the earthquake at Mayaguez, entering the lower floors of buildings near the waterfront, overturning a brick wall, destroying several dwellings, and carrying a small house seaward. At Isla Mona, the receding water bared the reef and the returning 3.0-m wave washed away a pier and flooded a cistern. Submarine cables were cut in several places. At Punta Borinquen Lighthouse, 4.5-m waves inundated 100 m into a grove of coconut palms. About an hour after the earthquake the sea dropped 1.5 m and rapidly rose to 90 cm at Bahia de Boqueron. This was followed by several smaller waves. Near the bay entrance 800 m southeast, the water rose 45 cm. At Guanica, 50-cm waves were observed as well as slight water movements at Playa Ponce. The sea rose 75 cm at Cayo Cardona, and at Isla Caja de Muertos, water rose to 1.5 m covering
    15 m of the beach. A lo-cm bore went up the Rio Grande, and water receded and rose 1 mat Rio Grande de Loiza. At Puerto Arecibo, 30-60 cm waves were observed, and at Isabella, the water rose 2.0 m. The waves rose 1.2 m at Krum Bay, St. Thomas, and 45 cm at Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas. The tsunami was also noted at Tortola. At Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, the waters of the Rio Ozama fell and rose to 70 cm with a period of 40 minutes. The death toll for this event was 116 people, 40 of those perishing from the tsunami. A recent survey by the University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, indicated that tsunami fatality data should also include 100 people previously reported as missing, bringing to 140 the total fatalities from the tsunami. Berninghausen, 1968; Lander and Lockridge, 1989; Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; Mercado and McCann, 1998; Reid and Taber, 1919a; Robson, 1964. V4

    1918, October 24 [23:43 LT]: Submarine cables were cut again, as on Oct. 11, two weeks earlier, and the steamship Mariana plunged and rolled heavily 11 km southwest of the Mona lighthouse. It is likely that the northwest coast of Puerto Rico experienced at least a small tsunami, since a wave was recorded on the tide gage at Galveston, Texas. This was the most severe aftershock of the October 11” earthquake. Berninghausen, 1968; Heck, 1947; Lander and Lockridge, 1989; Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; Reid and Taber, 1919b. V4

    1922, May 02 [20:24 UT]: A wave that may have been associated with a small earthquake at Isla de Vieques, Puerto Rico, four hours earlier, was recorded as 0.6 m on the tide gage at Galveston, Texas. Parker observed a train of three waves with a period of 45 minutes, followed eight hours later by a similar train of smaller waves. It does not seem likely that this slight shock lasting two seconds would have produced a recordable tsunami. Berninghausen, 1968; Campbell, 1991; Lander and Lockridge, 1989; Parker, 1922. V2

    1928, September 13: Singer reported a wave at Carupano, Venezuela, but with an absence of any link to an earthquake. Singer, et al., 1983. Vl

    1929, January 17 [11:52 UT]: The city of Cumana, Venezuela, was destroyed by an earthquake (Ms=6.9) that killed 50 and injured 800 people. It was also felt in Caracas and Barcelona. It was followed by a tsunami that caused great damage at Cumana and was also reported at Minicuare, at El Dique/Bl Barbuda, and El Salado, and Puerto Sucre. A steamer off-shore was endangered by a large wave. Two five-ton launches were washed ashore and stranded. Many sailboats and dwellings were wrecked by the tsunami. Singer reported that an active fault ruptured with displacement along the length of the fault (4 km) east to west at El Penon, Caiguire, and fault activity shifting southwest to northeast at LuidBededero and El Penon, San Antonio, Cumana, as well as settlement and collapse of Pointe Guzman Blanc0 at Cumana, and other earthquake related phenomena. There were many slides and collapses throughout the area. Berninghausen, 1968; Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; Robson, 1964; Schubert, 1994; Singer et al., 1983; Seismological Notes, 1929. V4

    1931, October 01: At Playa Panchita, Ranch0 Veloz, Las Villas, Cuba, waves beat on the beaches. The jetty and coastal houses were inundated to a depth of one meter, damaging contents. No earthquake was reported. No hurricanes were in the area at this time. Neumann, et al., 1988; Rubio, 1982. Vl

    1932, February 03 [06:16 UT]: A strong earthquake (MMI=VIII) that affected 80% of the buildings at Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, killed eight people, and injured 300. A person aboard a North American ship reported seeing a wave. Later, after checking marigrams from different points in the Caribbean, it was concluded that the tsunami would have been small. Berninghausen, 1968; Hess, 1932; Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; Rubio, 1982. V2

    1932, November 04: Singer reported a wave at Cumana, Venezuela, with an uncertain link to an earthquake. Singer, et al., 1983. Vl

    1939, August 15 [3:52 UT]: At Cayo Frances, Cuba, movement of the seareportedly woke up the sailors on two vessels. The earthquake (Mb=5.6) that caused this movement affected the Las Villas and Santa Clara provinces. Rubio gives the epicenter as localized in the ocean. Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; Rubio,1982. V2

    1946, August 04 [17:51 UT]: A magnitude 8.1 earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes ever reported in the Caribbean. The greatest damage and loss of life occurred at Matancitas and nearby coastal towns where a 2.5-m tsunami flattened homes and buildings. Matancitas was totally destroyed by the tsunami and abandoned. The tsunami was formed by a sudden disturbance of the ocean floor about 65 km offshore northeast of Julia Molina. The ocean receded from the Matancitas coast, and people left the shore to collect the stranded fish. At Julia Molina, the tsunami height was 4-5 m. At Cabo Samana, several ebbs and flows were observed, but no damage occurred. The wave was recorded at San Juan, Puerto Rico, 36 minutes after the earthquake, where some damage occurred on the west coast from the earthquake. Waves were also recorded with travel times of 2 hours 7 minutes after the earthquake at Bermuda, 3:59 at Daytona Beach, and 4:49 at Atlantic City, New Jersey. De Guerrero reports that the wave entered almost
    1 km inland sweeping away the city of Matancitas and several villages, and killing approximately 1,790 people. Previous estimates placed the death toll near 100. This substantially increased the total number of fatalities in the Caribbean due to tsunamis. Continuing aftershocks bothered the coastal villages for months. Beminghausen, 1968; Bodle and Murphy, 1948; Heck, 1947; Herridge de Guerrero, 1998, Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; Murty, 1977. V4

    1946, August 08 [13:28 UT]: In Puerto Rico the sea withdrew at Aguadilla (24 m), and at Mayaguez (76 m). returning as devastating waves. The earthquake and tsunami caused 75 fatalities and left 20,000 homeless. At San Juan, the tsunami was recorded on a tide gage 35 min. after the earthquake. This was due to second shock (Ms=7.9) nearly as strong as the earthquake of August 4, but located about 100 km northwest. The waves were also recorded with travel times of 202 after the earthquake at Bermuda, 4:02 at Daytona Beach, and 4:42 at Atlantic City. Berninghausen, 1968; Bodle and Murphy, 1948; Lander and Lo&ridge, 1989; Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; Rubio, 1982; Schubert, 1994. V4

    1950: An earthquake destroyed the tide station at Puerto Armuelles, Panama. The tide gage at Puntarenas, Costa Rica, was shaken and sdon afterward recorded a seiche or possible tsunami. Small oscillations that may have resulted from this earthquake were also recorded on the tide gages at San Juan de1Sur, Nicaragua, and La Union, El Salvador. Murphy and Ulrick 1952. V2

    1950, August 3: A wave was reported at Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, with an uncertain link to an earthquake, although there were verified reports of an inland earthquake (6.8) at Laguna La Gonzales, Chabesquen, where a mud slide caused flooding northwest of Chabasquen. The above quake also caused landslides at Caserio Providencia, Chabasquen, emptying the Laguna de1 Catire and destroying coffee plantations and three dwellings, and damaging dwellings at Los Bucarer. The earthquake also caused landslides at Puente Saguas, Biscucuy; Barrio El Atlantico, Caracas; La Boca, Anzoategui, Curumato, Guarico; La Adjuntas; and La Aguada, El Tocuyo; and at La Laguna and El Penon, Humocaro Baja; as well as surface ruptures at La Calebrina; Humocaro Bajo; Cementario; Humocaro Alto; San Rafael; Sanare; and Cerros de El Paraiso, Maracaibo. Singer, et al., 1983. V2

    1953 May 31 [19:58 UT]: A 6 cm wave was recorded on the Puerto Plats, Dominican Republic, tide gauge. It may have been a wave from hurricane Alice that was in the area at this time. Millas, 1968; Murphy and Cloud, 1955. V2

    1955 January 18: A wave caused four ships to be wrecked, and four waterfront buildings to be damaged in La Vela, Venezuela. An earthquake (Mb=5.5), off the coast of Panama, is listed for this time. Beminghausen, 1968; Seismological Notes, 1955. V2

    1961 June 16: It was reported that a wave caused partial flooding of the towns south Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela. Also mentioned were landslides at Altamira and Calderas, Venezuela. Singer et al., 1983. V2

    1968, September 20: An earthquake (Ms=6.2) occurred near the coast of Venezuela, and a tsunami was reported. Singer made no mention of the tsunami, but reported landslides at Chaguama de Loero, Rio Caribe, that destroyed one dwelling and damaged three others. Landslides at La Cumbre Mariano Leon, Tunapuy, reportedly injured two people, and a collapse and settlement occurred at Guiria. Hurricane Edna was passing north of Venezuela at this time. Coffman and Cloud; 1970; Singer, et al., 1983; Lynch and Shepherd, 1995. V2

    1969, December 25 [21:32 UT]: A magnitude 7.6 earthquake was felt on Guadeloupe, Dominica, and Martinique, St. Vincent, Antigua and Barbados. A wave was recorded at Barbados, Antigua, and Dominica, with a maximum amplitude of 46 cm at Barbados. Van Hake and Cloud, 1971; PreZiminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE), 1969. V4

    1979 September 13: A wave that may have been associated with a Panamanian earthquake (Mb 5.0) on this date destroyed the pier at Puerto Cumarebo, Venezuela. Schubert, 1994, Singer, et al., 1983. V2

    1985 March 16: A moderate earthquake (Mw=-6.3) caused damage and injuries to six people at Guadeloupe and minor damage at Montserrat. It was also felt at Antigua, St. Kit&, and Puerto Rico. A several-centimeter tsunami was recorded at Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe. Lynch and Shepherd, 1995; PDE, 1985. V4

    1989 November 1 [l&25 UT]: An earthquake (Ms=4.4) occurred in the Mona Passage off the north coast of Puerto Rico, generating a small wave that was reported in El Nuevo Dia on the 2”d. The Puerto Rico Civil Defense reported a notable augmentation of the sea level in the area of Cabo Rojo. El Nueva Dia, 1989; PDE, 1989. V3

    1991 April 22 [21:56 UT]: A MS = 7.6 created a tsunami that affected the coast of Central America from north of Limon, Costa Rica, to Panama. Less than 10 minutes after the earthquake, the residents at Bocas de1 Tore, Panama, reported that the Las Delicias sand bank, normally covered by 60-90 cm of water, emerged as the sea receded and remained above water for 5-7 minutes. Then several waves entered the bay with great force, flooding the flat northern part of the town 50-100 m from the coast. At Isla de Carenero, violent waves destroyed dwellings. At San Cristobal Island, the sea receded several meters for 45 minutes. People went onto the exposed beach to catch trapped fish. Tsunamis were also observed in Panama at Bastimento, Cristobal, 10 cm; Portobelo, 60 cm; and Coca Solo, Colon, 76 cm. A 2-m tsunami inundated 300 m in the Cahuita-PuertoViejo area, Costa Rica, causing some additional damage. The tide gage at Limetree, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, recorded amplitudes of 7 cm. Camacho, 1994; PDE, 1991. V4

    1997, July 9 {19:24 UT]: A MS = 6.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Venezuela, near Isla de Margarita, causing extensive damage and landslides in the Cariaco-Cumana region. At least 76 people perished and 500 were left homeless. James Trim, a participant at the Emergency Planning and Management Workshop for Industrial Disasters, October 1997, in Trinidad, reported that his brother had seen a wave come ashore then recede on the south coast of Tobago, a few minutes after the earthquake. Mercado, 1997. V3

    1997, December 26 [3:00 LT]: A volcanic debris slide of 60 million cubic meters occurred in the White River Valley, Montserrat, on Dec. 26” (named the Boxing Day Collapse.) On the night of the eruption there were reports of a wave inundating the Old Road Bay area, 10 km from the landslide site. A small tsunami was probably generated by the debris avalanche possibly assisted by the pyroclastic flows as they entered the sea at the mouth of the White River Valley. The tsunami wave was refracted around the coastline of Montsetrat, and achieved considerable run-up in Old Road Bay.
    The wave was estimated to have been about 1 m higher than the road which lies 2-m above water level, and to have moved inland a maximum distance of 80 m. A variety of objects, including a small wooden boat, a roof to a shelter, and a stone table were displaced several meters inland and a large log was carried even further by the wave. Impact marks up to 1 m were also on the side of palm trees facing the sea. The grass was oriented in such a way as to indicate the retreat of the wave. An observer reported seeing the sea move out and then back in, which is typical of a landslide-generated tsunami. The focusing of the wave at Old Road Bay can be attributed to the peculiarities of wave behavior along a coastline and the abrupt change of coast direction at Old Road Bay. The wave moved inland here, because the coast abruptly changes its direction, and the wave moving parallel to the coast would have met the shore head- on. Also, the shallow offshore bathymetry and onshore topography in the area aided extended wave run- up. Since July 18, 1995, when this stratovolcano in the Soufriere Hills began erupting (the first recorded eruption of this volcano in historic times) there have been several debris slides that reached the ocean, but the authors have not found a report of unusual waves other than this one. Mangeney, et al., 1998; Calder, et al., 1998. V4


  8. Anonymous says:

    Until the new system is established, please follow the instructions below:
    1. Stand and look at wave which you have had no warning of.
    2. Bend over at waist and put head between your legs.
    3. Kiss your a$$ good bye.


  9. Tidal wave says:

    ” first response agencies continue to rely on more traditional communications vehicles to get the information out.”

    Marl road?


  10. Anonymous says:

    Has any small island in the Caribbean ever sustained damage from a tsunami in recorded history?


    • Anonymous says:

      All of them. There are house-size boulders in East End that were transported there by forces in the pre-inhabited geological past.

      From Science of Tsunami Hazards:
      “The area of the Caribbean Sea is geologically active. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common occurrences. These geologic events can generate powerful tsunamis some of which are more devastating than the earthquake or volcanic eruption itself. This document lists brief descriptions of 91 reported waves that might have been tsunamis within the Caribbean region. Of these, 27 are judged by the authors to be true, verified tsunamis and an additional nine are considered to be very likely true tsunamis. The additional 53 events either are not described with sufficient detail in the literature to verify their tsunami nature or are judged to be reports of other phenomena
      such as sea quakes or hurricane storm surges which may have been reported as tsunamis.
      Included in these 91 reports are teletsunamis, tectonic tsunamis, landslide tsunamis, and volcanic tsunamis that have caused major damage and deaths. Nevertheless, in recent history these events have been relatively rare.”



    • Anonymous says:

      Happens all the time.


  11. Anonymous says:

    If your number is up, it is up. You can run but you cannot hide.


    • Anonymous says:

      While I go upstairs and set up a Snap story, you can be the guy transfixed on the incoming wave like the guy in the Phuket highlight reel. Most tsunamis peak at under 10 feet, which is far less than many of our buildings sustained for hours during Hurricane Ivan.


      • Anonymous says:

        I am that guy who put his faith in God. Which guy are you?


        • Anonymous says:

          So your the guy who keeps getting pomoted because you are TFF, Too Many Friends to Fail, and you use your religion against others who work harder than you? Hope the tsunami catched you off guard so you can pray with all your friends on the beach.


    • Anonymous says:

      If can launch your boat quick-quick , unna can ride it out….


    • Anonymous says:

      Born to be hanged won’t drown. Besides, roads congestion would prevent you from getting wherever you would be going, unless you are a sprinter and can reach observation tower in Camana Bay in no time.


  12. Anonymous says:

    It would be nice if the Digicel customers didn’t have to perish in these drills. ICTA should be supervising these excersises.



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