DoE confirms coral damage from Kittiwake

| 09/10/2017 | 96 Comments
Cayman News Service

USS Kittiwake (Photo courtesy DoT)

(CNS) UPDATED: The Department of Environment completed a preliminary assessment Monday of the damage that the sunken wreck, USS  Kittiwake, has caused to coral in the area after the artificial reef shifted during the recent high seas from Tropical Storm Nate. Officials said the wreck’s movement impacted some of the adjacent living coral reefs and early indications are that the coral damage is confined to an area of about five by three metres. But the DoE is concerned about further damage and said this is why it had recommended against sinking artificial wrecks on the seabed around Grand Cayman.

Explaining what has happened in response to inquiries by CNS, the DoE said the damage to the natural reef was caused when the ship’s superstructure tilted seaward as result of the erosion of sand on which the hull was resting.

“Although no longer touching the reef, she currently lies very close to it and future contact with the reef can be expected with other large storm events. This suggests that repair of the identified damage is not advisable at this stage,” DoE Director Gina Ebanks-Petrie said. “Movement such as has been observed at the Kittiwake is not completely unexpected during a storm event. This is why the DoE has consistently recommended against the placement of artificial wrecks and other objects on the seabed around the Cayman Islands as our extremely narrow marine shelf makes it is very difficult to place these structures at any safe distance from living reef.”

Given the current situation and the early assessment, Ebanks-Petrie said the DoE is now working closely with the Cayman Islands Tourism Association and discussing the next steps to ensure the wreck is safe for divers and remains an important attraction for visitors.

On Tuesday morning, CITA issued a press release that made no mention at all of the reef damage or how they plan to prevent the wreck from crushing anymore live coral. Instead the organisation claimed that all was well and “…after an extensive assessment…” the site has been “deemed safe for future visits.”

CITA said as of Monday afternoon the moorings were safe for boats to tie up to, and visitors would still able to see the entire wreck from the surface making it an interesting snorkel spot. “It is advised that watersports operators have their staff dive the site first, without customers, as it really is a different wreck, and will take some getting used to,” officials added.

CITA said it will continue to speak with the Department of Environment (DoE) and watersports members of the organisation and would ensure future shifting is minimized or mitigated but did not say how that would happen and what would happen about the natural reef which has been damaged by the wreck.

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Category: Marine Environment, Science & Nature, Weather

Comments (96)

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  1. Cayman News says:

    The comment that appeared in regards to this article purporting to be written by Lance Jefferson was not written by him and has been removed. Cayman News Service apologises for any inconvenience or embarrassment this may have caused Mr Jefferson.

  2. Anonymous says:

    Classic case of the tail wagging the dog. Some CIG departments just operate autonomously and in ignorance despite expensive scientific studies, reports and recommendations. In boom times the almighty $ trumps everything that is perceived to be anti-capitalist even if it costs us our environment in the near future. Soon we’ll have to build a big aquarium with fake coral for divers to swim in.

  3. Anonymous says:

    It’s a scary precedent being set when the DoE is not willing to enforce fines or remediation of destroyed coral because of the Kittiwake. People, the very same who make up the DoE and dive operators, cannot get indignant and vexed when an accident happens,yet when something as damaging and huge as the Kittiwake moves, topples over, and destroys a 5×3 section of millions of year old reef, turn a blind eye. The writing has been on the wall of the damage Kittiwake was capable of since the monstrosity was sunk in Cayman’s pristine and beautiful waters. The hypocrisy is astounding!

    • West bay Premier says:

      I agree 100% Anonymous 6:06 am. Like I said before Ms Ebanks – Petrie should also close the site down until the wreck is professionally secured . I also agree that all watersport opperators should be responsible for the repairs of the corals and securing of the wreck . Thumb it down or not but we can’t continue to destroy the Environment and you reape all the benefits and leave . Think about leaving the Islands and the world better than you found it and take responsibility .

  4. Anonymous says:

    Not sure if it’s been mentioned yet but the Kittiwake was also sunk in a MARINE PARK as well as being too shallow. Whoever approved this needs to be sacked.

  5. Clayton Minton says:

    Are you serious? You must be a part of CIG to come up with such drivel!

  6. Nemo says:

    Well for starters, I believe the Premier, Moses, Dot and the CITA should pay to relocate the wreck to deeper waters. Then commence on restoration of the real reef and fine the above for each day the wreck stays close to the reef.

    Greed has made this happen and worst now that Dart is removing the reef next to the Kimpton. When are we going to learn.

  7. Anonymous says:

    2200 ton Kittiwake will need heavy-lift-airbag-salvage into a ship cradle on the sea floor so that this asset is secure and safe for years to come. CITA should RFP this job to the professional marine salvage companies ASAP. There are shipyards all over the world going bust with cheap cradles and expertise that can be easily barged here.

  8. Mike Nelson says:

    This was bound to happen and this is also why every diver and snorkeller pays an entrance fee to dive or snorkel on the wreck. Part of that fee is for “an environmental contingency fund” according to the Tourism association.
    Now lets see how much of that money is still where it should be and let’s see it put to the use it was intended for…..
    It would be nice to hear from the tourism association on what their action plan is going to be……

    • Anonymous says:

      Don’t hold your breath waiting for that action plan! They will probably find a nice shady spot on 7 mile an stick their heads in the sand!

  9. Anonymous says:

    Everyone moaning about this or that … “oh what a mess” .. “oh its this one’s fault” “that one’s gone and messed up big time”… there’s literally not a day that goes by without someone b!tching about something … don’t you get tired?

    There’s just too many people having an opinion and getting offended in today’s society… sh!t happens, learn from it and move on.

    • Diogenes says:

      As you bitch about people bitching and as you get offended by people getting offended, this comment is a signed, sealed and delivered declaration of hypocrisy

  10. Anonymous says:

    Wow, at the time of writing there are 35 experts on reefs and using old vessels as reefs. Sadly there were probably no experts when the decision was made…

  11. just asking says:

    They had to get the dive site. What has ever happened to the $5.00 per person that the Cayman islands government was supposed to get.

    • Jotnar says:

      They spent it… on something else, just like every other specific tax they collect whether it’s repatriation fees for work permits, viromental protection fund or tyre recycling charges.

  12. Anonymous says:

    I said it over and over again – other countries aim towards sustainability and habitat protection and are embracing their natural environment, but in Cayman we are hell-bent to destroy it!
    Don’t worry- 7 Mile Beach almost looks like Miami Beach already and one has to swim ways out to catch sight of any marine life. Our peaceful, nature and diving loving l tourists are being replaced by those who are more into partying on the beach and in the water (hence the influx of those annoying party boats and jet skis), until they find the next party destination to move on to………

  13. Anonymous says:

    For those of you criticizing,. where in Cayman is there a 100′ wide open sandy bottom where there would be no change of the ship hitting any rocks and corals?

    • Anonymous says: about NOT sinking man-made vessels into our pristine, natural marine environment in order to create an artificial $$$-generating dive site in the first place??

      – Who

      *Apparently the powers-that-be are not content with over-developing our limited land space, but now seek to do the same below the water’s surface. Awesome.
      I look forward to the first 5 lane round-about down there.

      • Anonymous says:

        We knew it wouldn’t be long. Thank God Who has chimed in, whatever would we do without his two cents?

      • Diogenes says:

        Kinda got to agree with Alex Jones Jr. here, the benefit of divers having one more dive site, on an island with more than enough dive sites to sate any divers lust for undersea adventure, doesn’t justify or negate the risk of damage to one of of our islands most precious natural resources ( Gonna leave all the “powers that be”, “5 lane roundabouts” to Captain Conspiracy though, he seems to have a firm hold on his tinfoil hat.)

        Inertia seems to be affecting his thoughts as if they are made of matter themselves it is a physics phenomenon, I dub it “Incest Induced Islander Inertial Crazy Syndrome” or IIIICS for short

        • Anonymous says:

          Thanks CNN Wolf Blister

          • Diogenes says:

            Ohhhh that’s a good one, I would have gone with “Anderson Scooper” but that’s just me.
            Cause he’s gay and I support gay rights, but I guess that’s all the intelligence you could muster, you can use that one next time feel free. (I’ll even pretend you came up with it and I’ll use my surprised face)

            Love DIogenes

            • "Dio"genes says:

              And we support “human rights” that applies for all ?

              • Diogenes says:

                Nice name, wonder where you got it?

                • "Dio"genes says:

                  Name comes from a Greek philosopher who use to sleep on the ground. “Dio” means God. He had the belief in being in harmony with nature. “Desires” mislead you.

                  But no disrespect, I don’t think you you mimic him well ✌

        • Jotnar says:

          the incest reference is way out of order, and in any event bear in mind Who isn’t actually from Cayman – he came here as a kid – so the whole little islander shtick is way off line quite apart from being in bad taste.

          • Anonymous says:

            How do you stalkers come up with these facts?


            – Who

          • Diogenes says:

            Obviously I’m not serious @Jotnar, I have no idea who “Who” is It’s the only way I can rationalize all the insanity while also getting to poke fun at it, it is in poor taste yes, but let’s not pretend that it didn’t happen, read “Founded Upon the Seas: A History of the Cayman Islands and Their People” it makes many references to just how bad the issue was, even up to the mid 20th century, I promise I’ll behave from now own, I won’t bring up our disturbing past as a genealogical cesspool

            But honestly, my name is Diogenes, Do you actually expect me to not be controversial, I’m nowhere near as bad as the real Diogenes (say what you want about him, but his way of thinking is direly needed in the world again)

            Love Dio

        • Anonymous says:

          Yes, very.

          – Who

        • Anonymous says:

          I guess I should find it flattering that someone pays me so much attention.

          I may just have to file for divorce and invite you for a coffee Diogenes – because, if anything, you are committed!

          – Who

          • Diogenes says:

            Wouldn’t want your God to smite you for being a homosexual, also thanks but no thanks Who, stick with the one you already tricked into exchanging vows with you.

            • Anonymous says:

              Gays like you really need to get that “God” chip off your shoulder.

              Never have I referred to homosexuals and God in the same argument.

              However that doesn’t stop paranoid idiots from constantly reacting as you do.

              – Who

              • Diogenes says:

                I forgot society is allowed to use religion to persecute and discriminate against persons but we aren’t allowed to bring it up, a thousand pardons kind sir, we shall learn our place as second class citizens and suffer in silence.
                Again to your little “I didn’t overtly mention Christianity so you bring it up” really? You just happen to be arguing the same basic points and defending the same basic principles for no reasons I guess, commenting about how once we change the definition of marriage that it will be a never-ending cycle of change. Forgive me for reading between the lines and inferring by using basic english language skills and intelligence ( Can’t wait for the “assuming makes and ass out of u and me quote” really validates your arguments) Again if you would like to claim that Christianity isn’t the basis for your stance against equality then feel free (just remember lying is a sin, right, cause sometimes it seems like y’all forget that) It serves to delegitimize your stance, if you just get to decide which consenting adult gets to do what.
                Guess you don’t care about not being bigoted though so why would that matter right?

                In conclusion, honestly fuck off, is it not tiring being a self righteous prick? Watching the world change right before your eyes as your antiquated worldview dies must be such a struggle for you.

                “Paranoid Idiot” another badge that I will wear proudly. Your arguments have little if any actual merit and it brings a smile to my face a tear to my eyes every time I think about it.

                This quote is attributed to Diogenes of Sinope and never has it been more true than today,
                “Man is the most intelligent of the animals, and the most silly”


                *Welcome one and all*

                ** I do this cause apparently it means you’re intellectually superior or something like that**

                *** Big ups to CNS for having the best comment sections ***

                **** I’ll be here all week folks ****

                ***** @Whooligan can’t wait for your response XOXOXO Dio *****

                • Anonymous says:

                  1.) Again, I have never referenced Christianity and homosexuality in the same argument. However, you continually retort along those lines.

                  2.) I personally believe that a religious perspective is the weakest platform to oppose any modern or legal conflict.

                  3.) What if you discovered I am an atheist? You would have zero arsenal with which to engage.

                  4.) Religion is not the sole opposing force to gay marriage and your insistence thereof speaks to your limited understanding of the issue.
                  E.g. The vast majority of Japanese people are very much against same-sex marriage – yet they are also overwhelmingly atheist.

                  5.) Basic biology, nature, and the essence of life is contrary to the concept of homosexual orientation / partnership. However, I guess in your eyes the aforementioned forces are simply politically-incorrect, lol!

                  *Reference other supposed examples of homosexuality in the close-related animal kingdom at your own risk. I guarantee, it won’t end well for your argument.

                  6.) Adult-to-adult heterosexuality is the only human sexual orientation that aligns with the physiology of human biology. All others fall into the category of perversion – as it concerns science and nature. (Yes we are throwing pedophilia into the “other” bag as well. It is what it is.)
                  Moreover, all other variants will ultimately have to refer back to heterosexual provisions in order to avoid ending up on a dead-end road to Nowhereville.
                  Also, lets us not forget that until very recently, the American board of psychiatry categorised homosexuality as a form of common illness – right along with all the other variants that you so despise.
                  Interestingly, homosexuality was removed and all others remain. We can safely assume it will only be a matter of time until this debate extends to include your special little friends.

                  7.) Primary to most that oppose same-sex marriage is the inherent conviction that it is “wrong” or “unnatural”. Unfortunately, the vast majority of westerners ignorantly and automatically lean upon their religious teachings as a means to defend their objection, thereby rendering their position fodder for the courts of most western nations.

                  8.) Re: “Again if you would like to claim that Christianity isn’t the basis for your stance against equality then feel free (just remember lying is a sin, right, cause sometimes it seems like y’all forget that)”
                  Again, you are retorting with anti-Christian points.
                  Your original shortcoming is the presumption that because I am a Caymanian, I must also be a Christian fundamentalist.
                  I could not give less of a rat’s ass about your constant onslaught on Christianity / religion.

                  You are ignorant, Diogenes.

                  9.) Personally, I don’t object to another’s preference and whether or not they are wired a certain way from birth or their god-father touched them inappropriately at the age of 5; I simply respect the undeniable essence of life, nature, and regenerative cycles.

                  Be gay. Lay together. Go on and marry Tom, Charles. Chase those prostates and trib those lips until the cows come home … however, don’t demand I suspend the truths and absolutes that basic biology and nature have shown just to make your sensitive ass (no pun intended) feel good.

                  Homosexuality and heterosexuality are by no means one and the same.
                  Never will regard the respective orientations on equal footing for to do so is to severely undermine the very essence of life – you know, the phenomenon that was necessary for us to even have this thrilling exchange on CNS today.

                  10.) Re: “In conclusion, honestly fuck off…”

                  You came for me Diogenes.
                  Therefore, I strongly encourage you to take your own good advice in this respect.

                  – Who

                  • Diogenes says:

                    I sat here for a good while and wrote a well constructed series of simple rebuttals against your points and then I realized, I honestly have better things to do than argue with some misinformed bigot, nothing I say is going to change the way you think, it is like trying to convince a racist white supremacist that whites are not superior and there is nothing wrong with being black or brown.

                    The one thing I cant help myself from pointing out however is that you are so very wrong about Japan and even after I commented before about how local and municipal authorities have begun to allow same-sex partnerships, which provide some of the benefits of marriage you still are touting the lie to try to bring the conversation from religion to biology and evolution.

                    It’s okay Who I am not the ignorant one, you are, anyone with sense can see that you lie repeatedly and the majority of your arguments are based on the assumption that there is some concrete definition of natural and unnatural. What is natural here on earth at this time and in the past doesn’t mean that everything else that we may find elsewhere is unnatural. If you compare the behaviors of clownfish for example that have the potential to alternate between the male and female sexes in their lives, you will find that the ideas of natural and unnatural aren’t always universal. As science continues to study the functions of the human brain and genetics (along with the behaviors of animals and plants) they will solidify the natural place of homosexual relations in nature as a form of population control and the other theorized communal benefits such as increased affection and care for family groups.
                    I’m am sorry that you are so confused and so misled, all that potential intelligence wasted, such a shame.


      • Anonymous says:

        Sorry, I gave an upvote before I realized it was Who. I will be more careful.

        • Anonymous says:

          I trust you realise, more than anything, your post demonstrates your self-destructive pettiness and ignorance.

          – Who

    • West bay Premier says:

      Anonymous 9:49am , the ship is fine in that white hole . All we need is have someone who knows how and money to properly secure it from moving in a hurricane. We don’t need a 100 ft wide Sandy bottom.

      I seen the Compass photo of Kittiwake with two chains coming out of the anchor chutes, that’s not how you anchor and secure the wreck underwater , that how you anchor the ship on the surface .

    • Anonymous says:

      Why do we need a stupid fake sunken ship anyways?!?

  14. Anonymously says:

    What a mess! To satisfy tourists to make us THE ALMIGHTY DOLLAR, we end up losing our reefs instead!

  15. West bay Premier says:

    DOE if Nate could do that much damage from being 100’s of miles away , imagine what the next one would do if it makes a direct hit . The water is calm now make sure that it’s properly secured to prevent any further damages to the corals and the wreck .

    • West bay Premier says:

      Ms Ebanks – Petrie said that DOE is working with CITA to make sure that the wreck is safe for divers / watersport opperators. That sound like that is all that is going to be done . I would say to Ms Ebanks – Petrie that this is her Department responsibility and shut the dive site down until the wreck is properly secured and protected from the next Hurricane and safe for divers then open it up .

    • Anonymous says:

      Anchoring can only do so much. Likely it will shift again by the time the next storm pashe’s by. Not much else can be done other than hope it doesn’t eventually become like the OroVerde.

  16. Anonymous says:

    So are the government going to fine themselves?

    • Anonymous says:

      CITA and the dive ops that make all the money from it should be responsible for paying. Including fixing the coral.

      • Diogenes says:

        Not a marine biologist, but from what I understand coral is very delicate and once they are damaged they are damaged, there is no “fixing it” coral takes decades to grow and sadly all we can try to do is prevent unnecessary damage, and to maintain the optimum conditions for coral growth ( by limiting pollution and climate change which is easier said than done)

      • Anonymous says:

        You don’t need to fix coral, it grows naturally.

        • West bay Premier says:

          @ 9:39am , YOU , that coral took 100’s of years to grow NATURALLY that size , do you want your children or grand children to wait that long to see coral look like that ? Obviously you don’t appreciate the corals or the ocean , so stop spouting your nonsense . Protect it then we wouldn’t have to fix it .

      • Jotnar says:

        The dive ops that pay CITA for accessing the wreck should pay for the damages when CITA doesn’t maintain or provide a secure anchoring system? So if you get on a public bus and it has an accident the passengers should all chip in for the damage?

    • West bay Premier says:

      Anonymous 6:39am , they might try and write a check for the damages and write payable to the next desk over .

    • Anonymous says:

      Don’t worry, it’ll come out of the public purse.

      • Anonymous says:

        Private companies make the majority of money off it, and then government pays for the costs associated with it? Sounds like a sweet deal.

  17. Anonymous says:

    So who are we going to charge for the damage? Who are we going to blame?

  18. Anonymous says:

    Definitely the makings of a paper Caymanian – thank goodness. Otherwise the surrounding noise would have been deafening.

  19. Anonymous says:

    There aren’t enough chains in the world to secure that ship in place during a hurricane! She needs to be in 100’ of water or more and they sunk it in 60’! The poor reefs can’t catch a break between human incompetence and climate change!

    • Anonymous says:

      When the seas raise 40 feet from the eminent global warming, she will be in 100′ of water. So eco-prophets don’t need to worry about the coral being damaged

    • Anonymous says:

      “There aren’t enough chains in the world to secure that ship in place during a hurricane!”

      Amen, and thank you.


      – Who

  20. Diogenes says:

    Not exactly my area of expertise, but are there preventive measures that could have been taken or enacted to prevent something like this from happening? If so perhaps our government could look into doing those things now (better late than never I guess).

    • Anonymous says:

      Preventive measure yes, don’t litter the ocean with damn junk.

      • Anonymous says:


        • Anonymous says:

          A sea is part of an ocean.

          • Anonymous says:

            The sea is separated from the ocean by a boarder. Just like the United States of America is separated from Mexico by a boarder. Or are North, Central and South Americans all Mexicans?

            Trump will be devastated to learn he is in fact Mexican!

            • Anonymous says:

              noun: boarder; plural noun: boarders

              a person who receives regular meals when staying somewhere, in return for payment or services.
              a student who lives at school during the semester in return for payment.
              a person who boards a ship during or after an attack.

    • Anonymous says:

      Simple – don’t sink the damn things. With a thriving natural reef structure the Cayman Islands doesn’t need ‘artifical reefs’ so wrecks like the Kittwake are nothing more than tourist attractions, they have no environmental benefit.

      • Anonymous says:

        This will sound harsh but try if possible to think about it first from a non emotional position. You are right it is a tourist attraction that’s what a significant part of Cayman makes its living from. Just like the infrastructure that has been put in place for the other economic provider financial services. Sacrifices have to be made and if a small part of the reef has been damaged I feel certain that the positive benefits of the Kittiwake over the past five years far outnumber the detriments. Of course we need to try to mitigate any environmental impacts but like they say “you have to crack some eggs to make an omelet”. Believe it or not Cayman’s success has not all been based on environmental benefit, and its still one of the best and most desired places in the world to live.

        • Anonymous says:

          What benefit? Sand Chute was a great dive (and made a great poster background) before they dropped a big hunk of garbage in the middle of it. So we simply replaced a natural dive site with an artificial one.

        • Anonymous says:

          You can try to justify sinking that rust bucket, but the damage to the coral is irreversible and no amount of money is worth that especially since the thing is literally going extinct. Don’t dump trash in the ocean.

      • Anonymous says:

        I swim regularly and can tell you that the reefs on SMB are bleaching again…climate change is happening and it doesn’t matter a damn what’s causing it. Common sense would tell you that pollutants in the air are not good anyway, and for sure cannot help, so why wouldn’t we try to ban harmful gases. It will be good for us all.

    • Anonymous says:

      ehhh .. Diogene’s an expert ??? ?

  21. Anonymous says:

    as usual…a 100% caymanian mess-up……

    • Anonymous says:

      Actually, that one is mostly expat ….,

    • Anonymous says:

      The oxygen starved minds of the expatriate dominated diving community envisioned Shipwreck City, which would have placed a number of decommissioned vessels all around the island to make Cayman the premier dive site in the world.

      That’s what the plans were. Every meeting with DoT when asked what was needed, CITA was hijacked by dive owners insisting that Shipwreck City would transform the dive industry and set Cayman apart from its competitors. More marketing money should be diverted towards promoting wreck diving and Cayman would see a major boom as a result.

      Kittiwake was the compromise. Let’s try one and see how it works. Well it was a very expensive project given that you can’t just grab a ship from out of a shipyard and sink it.

      So this is a 100% expatriate mess-up if you want to be fair in laying blame. Government would have been cursed to damnation if they didn’t get their ship. They’ve got it now, its an exclusive site for CITA’s members to dive and it is their full responsibility to maintain and repair.

    • Anonymous says:

      Not really 100% caymanian mess up cita is mostly furuners

    • Anonymous says:

      Caymanian government or do they have no say? Elected by Caymanians, not furreners….but no no, lets blame expats because Caymanians never do anything wrong, right?

    • Anonymous says:

      Why don’t you go back where you came from if Caymanians are messing up everything for you?

    • Anonymous says:

      As usual a 150% Caymanian mess up

  22. Anonymous says:

    It would seem that no matter what is done on this little island It always ends up less than desired . I don’t know if one should laugh or cry. Sighhhhh

    • Anonymous says:

      @9:01 pm
      There is a song in my language that goes something like that (English version):

      All covered with greenery, absolutely all,
      There is an island of bad luck in the ocean.
      Whatever they do, nothing works,
      It is obvious on Monday their mums have given birth.
      A crocodile is not caught, coconuts do not grow,
      They cry, they pray to God, not sparing tears.
      It’s not like they are slackers and could live,
      They should just take Mondays and cancel it.
      As luck would have it, there is no calendar on the island,
      Children and adults are lost in vain.
      On this occasion, from the night until dawn
      Crying unlucky people-savages
      And they cry, the poor, and curse troubles
      On the day that is unknown, in any year.

    • Anonymous says:

      I like your point, “no matter what is done on this island it always ends up less than desired”, good thing that the posters on this site and the negative callers are not in control of the country. There will always be naysayers, don’t build the airport, don’t build the cargo port, Dart is bad, don’t allow foreign investment, foreigners are taking over, don’t build a waste management facility, don’t close the scenic West Bay Road (That got washed away in every significant storm), don’t sink the Kittiwake to create one of the most attractive wreck dives in the world etc, etc. And thankfully we still have one of the most desired places to live and visit in the whole world and an economy that is doing better than a lot of other places that are bigger and have much more significant natural resources.

      Maybe a lot of our problems are the “desires” of the complainers, because in the big picture Cayman hasn’t really done too bad, and for that I compliment our current and past leaders who have made the tough decisions necessary for our success.

  23. Anonymous says:

    I always thought that the Kittiwake was being placed in too shallow a depth. The force of water is often underestimated.

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